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The Global Positioning System (GPS) comprises numerous satellites orbiting the Earth transmitting sets of low power radio frequency (RF) signals that can be received and interpreted by small electronic devices, commonly known as GPS devices, to determine the location of the device on the Earth. Smart phones and many other devices now contain GPS electronic hardware for determining location. From initial powering up of GPS device hardware, typically about 30 to 40 seconds is required to determine the first valid GPS location and subsequent computations of location require only a few seconds. GPS based on satellites performs best in open air while having poor or no reception inside buildings, between tall buildings, inside tunnels, etc.
Once location information is determined, this data can be used to plot the location on a mapping system and/or be transmitted, via wireless networks (for example, mobility networks), to a server for storage, presentation on maps and various reporting. A GPS device may contain additional electronic systems for mobility network connection via SIM card, Bluetooth wireless for tethering to a nearby smart phone/tablet, USB connection to another device and/or connection to vehicle On Board Diagnostics (OBD).
Trucks, trailers and other vehicles used for commercial purposes use GPS systems for fleet management and government compliance purposes as follows:
TrackM2M uses VisTracks/SnapTraq technology to implement Electronic Logging Device (ELD) also known as Hours of Service (HoS). This ELD system is compliant to current legislation in USA and Canada. The system overview, shown in Fig ELD-1-1, illustrates the combination of installed hardware and Android phone/tablet app required for this ELD system.
The following sections provide explanations for configuration and usage of this ELD system.
Before using the VisTracks/SnapTraq ELD system, some initial settings will be required. Begin by logging into the VisTracks/SnapTraq website portal and click the Settings button near the top right corner appearing as a gear shaped icon, as shown in Fig ELD-2-1. Note: If you do not have web access, TrackM2M will take care these steps in advance.
From the left side menu, select Users as shown in Fig ELD-2-2. A separate user account is required for each driver and each office administrator involved with ELD. Click [New User] button to create each new account. Note that each user account requires an email account.
From the left side menu, select Drivers as shown in Fig ELD-2-3. A separate driver record is required for each driver. Click [New Driver] button to create each new record. Driver records must include First Name, Last Name, Certified Drivers License (CDL) Number and Issuing State/Province, Email and Password. If the driver will need to add new vehicles remotely, select Asset Admin checkbox. Select Show 'Personal Use' and Show 'Yard Moves' checkboxes as applicable. Select appropriate Cycle from drop down lists. Set PDF Report Recipient to email address where reports are to be sent. Click [Ok] button when form is completed.
From the left side menu, select Equipment as shown in Fig ELD-2-4. Each truck and each trailer requires a separate equipment record. Click [New Equipment] button to add each new record. Each equipment record is specified as either Vehicle or Trailer. Vehicle name can be any alphanumeric text (absolute maximum 255 characters); Vehicle VIN is required; select appropriate Driver-Vehicle Inspection Report (DVIR) from drop down list; select Device as Geometris; and, MAC Address supplied by TrackM2M must be filled. Click [Ok] button when form is completed. For Trailer records, name is limited to 10 characters with no spaces or symbols, and VIN is not required.
Run SnapTraq app on tablet/phone and login using your email address as user name.
Next, you are prompted to select a vehicle as shown in Fig ELD-3-1. Select a vehicle from the drop down list. Selection of a trailer is optional.
Fig ELD-3-2 shows the main/home screen of the SnapTraq app. The "Hamburger" menu button is located in the top left corner along the action bar as shown in Fig ELD-3-2. Touch the hamburger menu button and look for Settings in the menu list.
Touch the Settings selection to display the Settings screen as shown in Fig ELD-3-3.
When starting the app for the first time, the app will request a login where the username is your email account name. Next, the app will request selection of a truck from a drop down list and optionally a trailer.
While it is possible to logout and shutdown the app, these actions are rarely necessary to actually do in practice. The normal operating state of this app is to run continuously 24/7 and be logged in continuously 24/7. The app will perform best under these conditions as it can effectively monitor your duty status at all times, even when you are off duty and gone home, the app continues running the clocks and producing logs.
The most essential aspect of logging is to specify when your duty status changes. Table ELD-4-1 lists the four duty categories. At the time your duty status changes, make the appropriate selection from this list.
Table ELD-4-1: Driver Duty Status
|Sleeper||Driver is in sleeper berth|
|On Duty Not Driving||Inspecting
Travelling as a co-driver (outside of sleeper berth)
Other on-duty, non-driving activities
Along the top of the app is the Hours of Service action bar that will display any number of different icons, shown in Table ELD-4-2, depending on the status of different aspects of logging. Most of these icons are also buttons that can be tapped to display detailed information or perform an action.
Table ELD-4-2: Hours of Service Action Bar Icons
|Logout: Tap to logout of app.|
|Refresh: Tap to refresh data / synchronize with database.|
|VBUS Connected: Vehicle computer connected to phone/tablet.|
|VBUS Not Connected: Vehicle computer not connected to phone/tablet.|
|Pending Edit Request: Tap to view/clear pending edit requests.|
|Data Diagnostics: Tap to view data diagnostics events dialog.|
|Data Diagnostics: A new data diagnostics event has occurred.|
|Malfunction: Tap to view malfunction events dialog.|
|Main "Hamburger" Menu: Access to more options and settings.|
Driver-Vehicle Inspection Report (DVIR)
To start a vehicle inspection report, tap the DVIR button as shown in Table ELD-4-3Fig. ELD-4-3: Tap DVIR button to begin a new vehicle inspection report.
Table ELD-5-1: Malfunction Events
|Requirement||Event Code||Event Name||Description|
|22.214.171.124||P / Power MF||Power Malfunction||An ELD must set a power compliance malfunction if the power data diagnostics event described in paragraph 126.96.36.199(a) of this appendix indicates an aggregated in-motion driving time understatement of 30 minutes or more on the ELD over a 24-hour period across all driver profiles, including the unidentified driver profile.||188.8.131.52||E / Sync MF||Engine Synchronization Malfunction||An ELD must set an engine synchronization compliance malfunction if connectivity to any of the required data sources specified in section 4.3.1 of this 87 appendix is lost for more than 30 minutes during a 24-hour period aggregated across all driver profiles, including the unidentified driver profile.|
|184.108.40.206||T / Timing MF||Timing Malfunction||The ELD must periodically cross-check its compliance with the requirement specified in section 220.127.116.11 of this appendix with respect to an accurate external UTC source and must record a timing compliance malfunction when it can no longer meet the underlying compliance requirement.|
|18.104.22.168||L / Pos MF||Position Malfunction||An ELD must monitor elapsed time during periods when the ELD fails to acquire a valid position measurement within 5 miles of the CMV’s movement. When such elapsed time exceeds a cumulative 60 minutes over a 24 hour period, the ELD must set and record a positioning compliance malfunction.|
|22.214.171.124||R / DR MF||Data Recording Malfunction||An ELD must monitor its storage capacity and integrity and must detect a data recording compliance malfunction if it can no longer record or retain required events or retrieve recorded logs that are not otherwise catalogued remotely by the motor carrier.|
|126.96.36.199||S / Trans MF||Data Transfer Malfunction||(a) An ELD must implement in-service monitoring functions to verify that the data transfer mechanism(s) described in section 4.9.1 of this appendix are continuing to function properly. An ELD must verify this functionality at least once every 7 days. These monitoring functions may be automatic or may involve manual steps for a driver.
(c) After an ELD records a data transfer data diagnostic event, the ELD must increase the frequency of the monitoring function to check at least once every 24-hour period. If the ELD stays in the unconfirmed data transfer mode following the next three 90 consecutive monitoring checks, the ELD must detect a data transfer compliance malfunction.
|188.8.131.52||O / Other MF||Other Malfunction||In addition to the required monitoring schemes described in sections 184.108.40.206– 220.127.116.11 of this appendix, the ELD provider may implement additional, technology-specific malfunction and data diagnostic detection schemes and may use the ELD’s malfunction status indicator and data diagnostic status indicator (described in sections 18.104.22.168 and 22.214.171.124) to communicate the ELD’s malfunction or non-compliant state to the operator(s) of the ELD.|
Table ELD-5-2: Data Diagnostic Events
|Requirement||Event Code||Event Name||Description|
|126.96.36.199||1 / Pwd Diag||Power Diagnostic||An ELD must monitor data it receives from the engine ECM or alternative sources as allowed in sections 188.8.131.52-184.108.40.206 of this appendix, its onboard sensors, and data record history to identify instances when it may not have complied with the power requirements specified in section 220.127.116.11, in which case, the ELD must record a power data diagnostics event for the corresponding driver(s), or under the unidentified driver profile if no drivers were authenticated at the time of detection.|
|18.104.22.168||2 / Sync Diag||Engine Synchronization Diagnostic||An ELD required to establish a link to the engine ECM as described in section 4.2 must monitor its connectivity to the engine ECM and its ability to retrieve the vehicle parameters described under section 4.3.1 of this appendix and must record an engine-synchronization data diagnostics event when it no longer can acquire updated values for the ELD parameters required for records within 5 seconds of the need.|
|22.214.171.124(d)||3 / Miss Diag||Missing Data Elements Diagnostic||If a new ELD event must be recorded at an instance when the ELD had failed to acquire a valid position measurement within the most recent elapsed 5 miles of driving, but the ELD has not yet set a positioning compliance malfunction, the ELD must record the character “X” in both the latitude and longitude fields, unless location is 88 entered manually by the driver, in which case it must log the character “M” instead. Under the circumstances listed in this paragraph, if the ELD event is due to a change in duty status for the driver, the ELD must prompt the driver to enter location manually in accordance with section 126.96.36.199 of this appendix. If the driver does notenter the location information and the vehicle is in motion, the ELD must record a missing required data element data diagnostic event for the driver.|
|188.8.131.52||4 / Tran Diag||Data Transfer Diagnostic||(b) If the monitoring mechanism fails to confirm proper in-service operation of the data transfer mechanism(s), an ELD must record a data transfer data diagnostic event and enter an unconfirmed data transfer mode.|
|184.108.40.206||5 / Unid Diag||Unidentified Driver Diagnostic||(b) If more than 30 minutes of driving in a 24-hour period show unidentified driver on the ELD, the ELD must detect and record an unidentified driving records data diagnostic event and the data diagnostic indicator must be turned on for all drivers logged in to that ELD for the current 24-hour period and the following 7 days.
(c) An unidentified driving records data diagnostic event can be cleared by the ELD when driving time logged under the unidentified driver profile for the current 24-hour period and the previous 7 consecutive days drops to 15 minutes or less.
|220.127.116.11||6 / Other Diag||Other Diagnostic||In addition to the required monitoring schemes described in sections 18.104.22.168– 22.214.171.124 of this appendix, the ELD provider may implement additional, technology-specific malfunction and data diagnostic detection schemes and may use the ELD’s malfunction status indicator and data diagnostic status indicator (described in sections 126.96.36.199 and 188.8.131.52) to communicate the ELD’s malfunction or non-compliant state to the operator(s) of the ELD.|
Actions for Malfunction & Data Diagnostic Events